While creative intellectual property is central to large industries such as advertisement, architecture, film productions, and software development, creative industries are widely driven by an informal management style and fast decision making. Furthermore, the temporary limitation of most creative project makes the coordination become even more challenging. Employees and artists in the creative industries increasingly experience an unstable income, unpredictable workloads, and few possibilities for foresighted planning. Moreover, these problems become even more pressing when multiple artists work together on different joint projects, as individual preferences and personal needs further constrain necessary interactions. As with any group of people, the more the respective members differ in their level of expertise, prior experience or personal preferences, the more difficult it becomes to work together. For instance, shooting a sports video requires roles including a director, cameramen, sound assistants, video editors, and many more. Due to the predominantly informal coordination of the individual roles within project-based organizations, the formation of such cooperation represents a major hurdle.
To solve these problems, classical management approaches have been established in the creative industries such as functional or hierarchical management styles. However, these management approaches work best (1) in a predictable and rational environment, (2) with homogeneous groups in terms of attitudes, beliefs, or personal values, (3) for employees with an economic prioritization rather the quest for creative self-realization, and (4) with standardized and stable tasks. Owing to the different nature of work in the creative industries, classical management approaches do not succeed and continue to affect the already informal and insufficient coordination strategies. Therefore, artists in the creative industries suffer from the increased effort of coordination, uncertainty, and the resulting waste of resources.